Classes

Series of photos of a demo bout by Tom and Steve

Whether this is your first WMAW or your ninth, this year's Workshop will expose you to a wide-variety of new ideas, skills, methodologies and research by some of the finest instructors in the Western Martial Arts community.

About the Class Categories

We are proud to offer a diverse curriculum of classes, lectures, demonstrations and workshops, aimed at a variety of skill levels. For newcomers, those without regular training, or attendees looking to refine their basics, we recommend you pay special attention to the Fundamentals classes, which are being offered on Thursday to help prepare you for the rest of the weekend. Concurrent Research & Pedagogy classes are being offered for those who wish to develop their teaching ability, and are specifically designed to help determine how to work with historical source material, what to teach, how to teach it, and how to translate those drills and exercises into practical application. The remaining general classes are broadly divided by topic: Medieval (Pre-1500), Renaissance and Early-Modern (Post 1500) and Close-Quarter Combat, are aimed at a wide variety of interests and skill levels, and occur in 60 min, 90 min, two hour, and three hour increments. Finally, as in previous years, there will also be a number of Lectures & Presentations throughout the weekend, designed to help give historical context or to present new research.

As you review the class roster and schedule, remember that most classes must be pre-registered and have attendance limits. Fundamentals, General and Pedagogical Classes have a maximum attendance of 40 students, unless otherwise noted.

Fundamentals

Fundamentals classes are a series of classes open to all attendees designed to provide either a basic overview of popular disciplines being taught throughout the weekend, or to provide instruction in specific core skills.

An Introduction to the Sword & Buckler of MS I.33: Half Shield vs. Underarm

Instructor: Roland Warzecha, Hammaborg
Class Category: Fundamentals
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 12:00pm-2:00pm)
Experience Level: Beginner to Advanced
Intensity Level: High
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Mask, single sword simulator of steel (recommended), nylon, aluminum or wood (no shinais!), gloves

The class will focus on fundamental mechanics and tactics of buckler fighting according to MS I.33. This is the first of two lessons will solely deal with First Ward/Underarm and Halfshield. The goal is for the seminar's participants to understand I.33's tactical approach and be able to explain the decision making process in relation to tempo, timing and distance by demonstrating at least one technique of this play and an according counter.

Introduction to Italian Rapier

Instructor: Bill Grandy, Virginia Academy of Fencing
Class Category: Fundamentals
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 12:00pm-2:00pm)
Pre-Requisitese: None
Required Equipment: Mask, jacket, rapier and gloves.

This class introduces students to the basic principles of Italian Rapier fencing. This class will discuss issues of time, measure, and constraint, in order to setup the most effective and safest attack. We will cover the fundamentals of Italian Rapier fencing, allowing students to make the most out of the later rapier classes.

Combat Biomechanics: The Art of Tactical Movement

Instructor: Tony Wolf
Class Category: Fundamentals
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 12:00pm-2:00pm)
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None

This class presents an integrated progression of both co-operative and competitive partnered combat movement exercises. In combination, these challenging exercises foster the balance, tactical sensitivity, "physical confidence" and related skills that are fundamental to the study of virtually any martial art.

The Essential Elements of Bolognese Sword and Buckler

Instructor: Steve Reich, Order of the Seven Hearts
Class Category: Fundamentals
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 2:15pm-4:15pm)
Experience Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Intensity Level: Low to Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: One-handed sword absolutely no lighter than a rapier, Buckler or Targa (i.e. a small, fist-held shield), Fencing Mask, Gloves, Jacket, and Pants such that all skin above the knees is covered.

Note: Although a rapier will work for this class, a student will have much better results with a somewhat stiffer and more substantial blade of the typical "Cut & Thrust" or so-called "Sidesword" variety.

This class will introduce students to some of the foundational actions and concepts of the Bolognese system of the Sword and Buckler. First, we will cover the essential guards of the Bolognese system (while masters detail from 10 to 20 guards, only a handful of them are absolutely essential). Then we will practice the various attacks —performing them with the assorted steps so that they are properly coordinated. Finally, we will practice the primary defenses against these attacks.

This material will be presented from the point of view of the Bolognese system, but beginning students of other Italian (and perhaps even non-Italian) systems of swordsmanship of the 16th century will find this class useful. In addition, I encourage everyone who will be attending my second class (Provocations for the Sword and Buckler —Initiating Effective Attacks) to attend this class as the material here will be a good preparation even for those experienced students of the Bolognese system.

Resources:
Tom Leoni's 4W 2006 handout: http://www.salvatorfabris.com/BologneseIntroduction.pdf
Steve Reich's 4W 2008 handout: http://www.salvatorfabris.com/BologneseFundamentals.pdf

Foundational Plays of the Iberian Montante (Two-Handed Sword)

Instructors: Steve Hicks, Bumpers, and Eric Myers, Sacramento Sword School/Tattershall School of Defence
Class Category: Fundamentals
Class Length: 90 min (11 Fri 5:15pm-6:45pm)
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Students should be in reasonable condition, and able to handle the heavy weight of the weapons.
Pre-Requisites: Class participants should have some minimal familiarity with the use of weapons.
Required Equipment: While there will be a number of montante negra (or preta) available to use, individuals should attempt to provide for themselves either large two handed swords, simulators or staves of at least 1.6 meters in length and minimal protective hand equipment (gloves). Like weapons will be matched, and all will at some point will handle the montante negra themselves.

This class will cover the plays of several different Spanish and Portuguese masters from the late 15th through the late 17th centuries. At a minimum this will cover material from Gomes de Figueiredo, Godinho, de Paredes, anonymous and de Viedma. Class will include basic skill building plays that develop the underlying integration of the movement of the sword and body to enable the management of the large montante, as well as some of the simpler context or tactical plays, that are designed to address situations of encounters on the street or in narrow passageways, certain environments such as within rooms, or in tactical situations, such as defending a person or place.

Conditioning and Gymnastics the Old Way

Instructor: Ilkka Hartikainen, The School of European Swordsmanship
Class Category: Fundamentals
Class Length: 75 min (13 Sun 10:00am-11:15am)
Experience Level: Everyone welcome
Intensity Level: Intense, depending on the students participating.
Pre-Requisites: A generally good health and desire for exercise.
Required Equipment: Despite the ancient origins of the class, clothing is required.

Rather than a class this session is about ways of getting fit that were used throughout the history. Not necessarily true, but for this session the older the better, and thus we will follow the instructions of 16th century physicist Girolamo Mercuriale, who researched ancient texts on health and gymnastics.

We will run, jump, wrestle, roll, carry each other and do a little bit of hand-balancing as seen in medieval artwork. We will be limited somewhat by not having a Greek palestra fully equipped with climbing ropes and weights, but what we lack in these we will replace with good spirit and improvisation: after all, this session is supposed to be a workout!

Close-Quarter Combat

The Close-Quarter Combat Track covers any form of unarmed or small-weapon combat, regardless of time period.

Ott's Ringen

Instructor: Jessica Finley, Great Plains Fechtschule
Class Category: Close-Quarter Combat
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 2:15pm-4:15pm)
Experience Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: [Forthcoming]
Required Equipment: Students should be dressed in clothing that is non-restrictive to movement, and optimally wearing a doublet or jacket that can endure wrestling stresses (this, however is not required for participation in the class).

Master Ott the Jew was recognized as a master of the art of wrestling in his time. In this course we will study the basics of his wrestling, including carriage, entering into the grip, and wrestling from the arms and body.

American Instinctive Knife-Throwing

Instructor: Pete Kautz, Alliance Martial Arts
Class Category: Close-Quarter Combat
Class Length: 3 hrs (11 Fri 9:00am-12:00pm)
Experience Level: All Levels
Intensity Level: Low to Average
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Eye Protection is MANDITORY for this class - bring sunglasses, etc. Please bring your throwing knife from last time if you were at WMAW07. If you have other throwing knives you are free to bring those as well and most likely they will be approved for the class unless I see something specifically unsafe about them. Large throwers 12" long or more are preferred. We will provide "Po' Boy Swamp Throwers" for those of you who don't have a throwing knife of your own already! This means that ALL are welcome to come and learn this fascinating art!

Learn how to throw knives for combat, sport, or survival! Easy to learn and fun — last time everyone (100%) of the students could whip around 180 degrees and nail an empty beer can with a throwing knife — even with two knives at once vs. two different targets! If you were there last time you remember how much fun it was as we destroyed hundreds of empty beer cans with flying steel.

At WMAW 2009 we're going to play for 3 full hours so there will be plenty of time for a review of the basics, throwing at ground targets, throwing while turning and running, throwing two knives at once, throwing with alternate hands, throwing at moving ground targets, throwing at moving vertical targets, drawing the knife and throwing, disarming into throwing, half-turn and full-turn throws for greater range, knife throwing games, how to make your own throwing knives for pennies each, and so much more!

You will leave with a new appreciation of just how easy this is to do for real, and it will open up many possibilities for you combatively. With this skill even a humble butter knife becomes a tool for survival.

Fiore's Abrazare and Daga, Part 1: The Ideal

Instructor: Roger Siggs, Rocky Mountain Swordplay Guild
Class Category: Close-Quarter Combat
Class Length: 90 min (11 Fri 1:15pm-2:45pm)
Experience Level: Students should be comfortable in close contact with other students, and going to the ground.
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: A rondel simulator (rubber, wood, or metal with safety blunt). Some trainers will be available. A notebook, towel and water bottle is also a good idea.

Fiore dei Liberi's 'Fior di Battaglia' provides an integrated method of defence against all manner of attacker. In this course we will detail the core system and principles of the wrestling and dagger fighting as detailed in Fiore's texts.

Flow Drills as a Teaching Tool for Medieval and Renaissance Dagger Combat

Instructor: Jörg Bellinghausen, Ochs-Historische Kampfkünste
Class Category: Close-Quarter Combat
Class Length: 90 min (11 Fri 3:15pm-4:45pm)
Experience Level: Beginner to Advanced
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: A working knowledge of any historical dagger method, Medieval or Renaissance, Italian or German... any will do.
Required Equipment: Eye protection, safe training dagger (a hard rubber training dagger such as the ColdSteel Peace Keeper trainer), notebook, towel, water bottle.

Originally coming from the Filipino Martial Arts, flow or cyclical drills are a simple yet highly effective method in increasing one's skill level in the use of the Medieval and Renaissance dagger methods. A basic drill with several variations will be shown and thoroughly explained and trained so students will end up with the ability to create their own drills for their own training.

The Pugnale Bolognese of Achille Marozzo

Instructor: Ilkka Hartikainen, The School of European Swordsmanship
Class Category: Close-Quarter Combat
Class Length: 90 min (11 Fri 5:15pm-6:45pm)
Experience Level: Everyone welcome
Intensity Level: Moderate to intense, depending on the students participating.
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Preferably a relatively large training knife or dagger with a crossguard, but any training knife or dagger will do. Mask absolutely necessary.

The class will present a rare piece of the Bolognese tradition: a surprisingly comprehensive set of actions for fighting dagger against dagger compressed to a few plays included in the work of Achille Marozzo. Achille Marozzo's work also includes holds that are done unarmed against an attacker with a knife, the most important of which will be practiced in the class as well, both unarmed and with the dagger.

American Catch Wrestling

Instructor: Dr. Les Moore
Class Category: Close-Quarter Combat
Class Length: 3 hrs (12 Sat 9:00am-12:00pm)
Experience Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate to High
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Towel, water bottle, loose clothing.

American Catch Wrestling is the faster style of wrestling that developed in America. This workshop will examine American Catch Wrestling in the lineage of Dr. Les Moore's family, the lineage of Dr. Tim Geoghegan through Peter Freer, and the lineage of Billy Wicks. This will be a thorough class working from the head all the way to the toe.

Fiore's Abrazare and Daga, Part 2: The Real

Instructor: Roger Siggs, Rocky Mountain Swordplay Guild
Class Category: Close-Quarter Combat
Class Length: 90 min (12 Sat 1:00pm-2:30pm)
Experience Level: Students should be comfortable in close contact with other students, and going to the ground.
Intensity Level: Moderate to High
Pre-Requisites: Attendance in part one.
Required Equipment: A rondel simulator (rubber, wood, or metal with safety blunt). Some trainers will be available. A notebook, towel and water bottle is also a good idea.

Building from Part 1, this class will discuss what occurs when the fight begins and things stop being 'perfect'. Taking Fiore's techniques and applying them to varied situations of advantage and disadvantage, we will learn how to move from the 'ideal' to the 'real' during a fight and recover when situations are not 'perfect'.

An Introduction to the Dagger of Joachim Meyer

Instructor: Jörg Bellinghausen, Ochs-Historische Kampfkünste
Class Category: Close-Quarter Combat
Class Length: 60 min (12 Sat 5:00pm-6:00pm)
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: Knowing the right and wrong end of a dagger.
Required Equipment: Eye protection, safe training dagger (wooden rondel or preferably a hard rubber training dagger such as the ColdSteel Peace Keeper trainer), notebook, towel, water bottle.

The name pretty much says it all. The fundamental plays of Meyer's dagger system will be covered as well as some conceptual ideas, selected other plays and empty-handed applications.

Bartitsu: The Gentlemanly Art of Self Defence

Instructor: Tony Wolf
Class Category: Close-Quarter Combat
Class Length: 3 hrs (13 Sun 10:00am-1:00pm)
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Intermediate
Pre-Requisites: Intermediate-level training in any fencing and/or unarmed combat system.
Required Equipment: Sturdy walking stick or approx. 36" dowel; fencing masks useful but not necessary.

In the year 1898, Edward William Barton-Wright founded Bartitsu as a process of cross-training between walking stick fighting, boxing, savate and jiujitsu. It was the first example of an eclectic self-defence system blending Asian and European combat styles, intended to beat hooligans and street gangsters at their own game.

This introductory class is an exploration of three of Barton-Wright's precepts (alignment control, initiative control and adaptability) via a combination of canonical and neo-Bartitsu training drills.

The Drei Ringen: Why Three?

Instructor: Dr. Bill Ernoehazy, Tattershall School of Defense
Class Category: Close-Quarter Combat
Class Length: 90 min (13 Sun 2:15pm-3:45pm)
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Moderate to High
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Eye protection, such as high impact goggles, a towel, and a dagger and longsword simulator.

Most interpretations of the Fechtkunst accept the interpretation of the Drei Ringen ("three wrestlings") as containing the basic grappling component of the art. But why only three grips? Is that a symbolic choice, or was there a mystical reason? In this class, we will explore the drei ringen by considering the choices available to a combatant when 'at grips'. Students should expect to be at close quarters for much of the class. Depending on the students' skill level, and the flow of the class, we may be able to explore the drei ringen as they unfold into the dagger and sword components of the art; students should be sure to bring adequate eye protection, as well as appropriate training simulators, in case class time allows that to happen.

American Bare-Knuckle Boxing & Purring

Instructor: Dr. Les Moore
Class Category: Close-Quarter Combat
Class Length: 3 hrs (13 Sun 4:15am-5:45pm)
Experience Level: [Forthcoming]
Intensity Level: [Forthcoming]
Pre-Requisites: [Forthcoming]
Required Equipment: [Forthcoming]

[Forthcoming]

Medieval Martial Arts

The Medieval Weapons track covers long arms c.1300-1500. Small arms, such as the dagger, are covered in the Close-Quarter Combat track.

Introducing Fiore's Art via the Sword in One Hand

Instructor: Rob Lovett, The Exiles, Company of Medieval Martial Artists (UK)
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 2:15pm-4:15pm)
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Low to Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None, although a basic familiarity with sword use would be an advantage.
Required Equipment: Gloves, Fencing Mask, Longsword (rebated steel, wood or nylon).

This workshop will show the principles of the system through the use of the sword single handed. It is aimed at the entry level students of Fiore's system and will primarily feature structured drills and techniques to demonstrate various elements of single handed sword use. Fiore's one handed sword use is a good introduction to the system's complete Spada and we will investigate examples of how one handed sword use is incorporated into the entire Spada engagement, as well as how it draws upon the unarmed and dagger elements of this integrated system.

Fighting from the Nebenhut: Longsword Plays from the Ringeck Fechtbuch

Instructor: Christian Tobler, Selohaar Fechtschule
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 90 min (11 Fri 1:15pm-2:45pm)
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: Basic familiarity with the Liechtenauer longsword material.
Required Equipment: Mask, gloves, a longsword simulator of either wooden, aluminum, or steel.

The Ringeck Fechtbuch is well-known for its commentaries on Liechtenauer's art of the longsword, but also features a number of 'extra' techniques which follow the commentaries. Among these are seven extend techniques for fighting from the 'Side Guard', or Nebenhut. We're work through these plays, observing their connections with fundamental precepts of Liechtenauer's art and learn how they relate to other weapon forms of the system.

Understanding the Role of Wide Play, Close Play and the Half-Sword in dei Liberi's Art of the Sword

Instructor: Greg Mele, Chicago Swordplay Guild
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 90 min (11 Fri 3:15pm-4:45pm)
Experience Level: [Forthcoming]
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None, but some familiarity with longsword fencing is preferred.
Required Equipment: The student should bring: writing materials to take notes, a fencing mask, an appropriate practice weapon (rebated metal preferred), and gloves.

The Italian masters-at-arms of the Middle Ages and early Renaissance recognized that the judgment and management of distance was paramount to a martial artist. The control of distance was critical to how Fiore dei Liberi conceptualized his techniques, or "plays", which he divided into two categories, one meant to maximize range ("zogho largo"), and one meant to collapse it ("zogho stretto"). These are distinctions of how measure affects technique, not a definition of how or when you first come into distance. Dei Liberi also introduced a third, more conceptual division, which was the bridge between these two types of play. Later elaborated upon by Filippo Vadi and the Bolognese masters, this was called the mezza spada (half-sword) - the distance at which both combatants' weapons will cross in the middle when the opponents strike at one another with the same blow.

This class examines the inter-relationship between wide play, close play and the "half-sword" by looking at key plays in dei Liber's manuscript, their follow-on actions, and the order they are presented within the manuscript, giving the student an understanding of how to manage distance and line in the dei Liberi tradition.

The Safe and Scientific Progression of the Fight with the Sword in Two Hands

Instructor: Bob Charron, St. Martin's Academy
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 90 min (11 Fri 5:15pm-6:45pm)
Experience Level: [Forthcoming]
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None, but some familiarity with longsword fencing is preferred.
Required Equipment: The student should bring: writing materials to take notes, a fencing mask, an appropriate rebated metal practice weapons, light gloves — please do not wear padded or armored gloves.

This class will use a simple sequence from the Fior di Bataglia to examine in-depth the proper order and action of the fight with the sword in two hands. This examination will include corroborating sources that are all in complete agreement with Fiore's work, and which provide all the instruction one requires to understand how to carry the fight while constantly facilitating the principle goal of all fencing — personal safety. When these principles are understood, the decision trees collapse into quite manageable, almost reflexive methods that the student can employ while remaining safe. These sources include:

  1. First principles of all fencing — guard, distance, time, angulation, leverage, proportion.
  2. Definition of terms in the Fior di Bataglia — guardia/posta, fendente/sottani/mezani/punte, largo/stretto.
  3. Instructions given in the De Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi (Vadi), Fior di Bataglia (Fiore) and manuscript 3227A ("Doebringer")
  4. Actions informed by the structure of this particular weapon — false edge use, using the hilt to properly protect the hands

Understanding the I.33 System through its Core Plays

Instructor: Roland Warzecha, Hammaborg
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 3 hrs (12 Sat 9:00am-12:00pm)
Experience Level: Beginner to Advanced
Intensity Level: High
Pre-Requisites: Participation in part 1 of this class
Required Equipment: Mask, single sword simulator of steel (recommended), nylon, aluminum or wood (no shinais!), gloves

The second lesson of this class will further progress in I.33's first play's technique evolution. The goal is for the seminar's participants to understand I.33's tactical approach and be able to explain the decision making process in relation to tempo, timing and distance by demonstrating at least one technique of this play and an according counter.

A German Spearman's Primer

Instructor: Christian Tobler, Selohaar Fechtschule
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 90 min (12 Sat 1:00pm-2:30pm)
Experience Level: Everyone welcome
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None, but some familiarity with other schools of polearm combat or Liechtenauer's art is a plus.
Required Equipment: Mask, gloves, and a rubber-tipped spear (some may be available on-site).

A staple of the medieval battlefield, tournament, and dueling lists, the spear is one of man's oldest weapons, and a mainstay of the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer. This class will include methods for fighting with long and short spears, drawing from the commentaries in the Sigmund Ringeck and Peter von Danzig Fechtbücher, as well as illustrated sources such as Hans Talhoffer, Paulus Kal, and 'Gladiatoria'.

A Conceptual look at the 24 Winden of Johannes Liechtenauers Art

Instructor: Jörg Bellinghausen, Ochs-Historische Kampfkünste
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 90 min (12 Sat 3:00pm-4:30pm)
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Low to Intermediate
Pre-Requisites: A working knowledge of German swordsmanship.
Required Equipment: Fencing mask, solid gloves, safe training sword (preferably steel), notebook, towel, water bottle.

Everybody who has more than a passing familiarity with Master Liechtenauers art has heard from the 24 Winden. Alas, the sources handed down to us explain a whopping two of them. What about the rest? This class will show the students how the 24 Winden are formed, what is the conceptual basis behind them and how all of them are contained within the canon of Liechtenauers art.

Fiore's Sword in Armour: Techniques of Entry

Instructor: Sean Hayes, Northwest Academy of Arms
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 90 min (12 Sat 3:00pm-4:30pm)
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: A working knowledge of medieval swordsmanship and dagger fighting is preferable.
Required Equipment: Longsword, gloves, fencing mask (or similar). Suggested: forearm & elbow protection such as skate pads, etc. Optional: As much harness as you can bring!

We will focus on techniques of entry: aside from battering, cuts won't do much, so how do we use thrusts (and some cuts) to enter into what will likely become a grappling and dagger situation, and how do we do it with minimum necessary risk? We'll work through a series of technical and light tactical drills drawn from Fiore dei Liberi's 4 manuscripts designed to provoke the opponent's entry into armoured combat, or to enter ourselves. The sword itself will be used, as Fiore shows us, as a sword, a short spear, and a tool to provide leverage against the opponent. We'll also employ the dagger, both as an alternative weapon in close combat with swords, and as a weapon of entry and defense in itself. Assisted by Gregory Mele (Chicago Swordplay Guild) and Alex Spreier (Northwest Fencing Academy).

The Spear Fighting of Fiore dei Liberi

Instructor: Greg Mele, Chicago Swordplay Guild
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 60 min (12 Sat 5:00pm-6:00pm)
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None, but familiarity with polearms or medieval swordsmanship of any tradition will be helpful
Required Equipment: A mask, gloves, and a staff or spear between 6 and 7.5' long. A dagger and longsword trainer would be ideal, but are not required. While not required for the class, this an armoured combat form, so harness is welcome!

In the four copies of his treatise, Fiore dei Liberi provides a brief set of instructions for fighting with the short spear. The method he teaches is distinct from that of the long spear, which was taught by most Italian and German masters, and is specifically designed for dueling in harness. While this method is reflected in only a few other texts (Vadi, the Anonymous "Gladiatoria Ms." And Talhoffer's Ambras Codex), dei Liberi's presentation is unique in that it is specifically shown in use against the "common method".

This class we will look at dei Liberi's six guards, his core technique, the scambiar di punta (exchange of thrusts), and its counter. We will then look at a series of follow-on actions and variations that derive from comments made within the spear section, and deriving from the same concepts found in the sections on the sword, dagger and sword in armour, showing how the master provides a complete method of spear/staff fencing.

Fiore's System through Spada

Instructor: Rob Lovett, The Exiles, Company of Medieval Martial Artists (UK)
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 3 hrs (13 Sun 10:00am-1:00pm)
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate to High
Pre-Requisites: A working knowledge of the requisites of Fiore's Spada - Posta, Footword, Colpi, basic Plays ( Largo or One Handed), etc.
Required Equipment: Gloves, Fencing Mask, Longsword (rebated steel, wood or nylon), Jack or additional protection optional.

This workshop will take students with a working knowledge of the elements of Fiore's Spada into looking at the system as an integrated martial art rather than a collection of categorized techniques. Fiore presents several Spada sections which do not stand independently in the art and these will be drawn together into a single Spada system by analyzing common trends, building skills in the "fight" and focusing on the realistic context of the application of the system for matters of life and death.

All of the principles of the system can be shown via Spada, including reducing the decision making process; distance and timing; moving between Master Battle and Master Remedy; how it builds on other parts of the system, such as dagger and showing how this is not just an integration of all Spada but also the entire system. At the end of this workshop students will have a better understanding of the "fight" and how they should work with the entire system.

Flow Drills for Fiore's Sword: A Primer for Tactical Drilling & Sparring

Instructor: Sean Hayes, Northwest Academy of Arms
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 90 min (13 Sun 2:15pm-3:45pm)
Experience Level: Intermediate to Advanced
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: A working knowledge of medieval swordsmanship and dagger fighting is preferable.
Required Equipment: Suggested: gambeson, better head protection, forearm & elbow protection such as skate pads, etc Optional: full kit suitable for "blossfechten" fencing. (combat without armour).

We'll employ techniques from Fiore dei Liberi's 4 manuscripts to practice extended chains of actions as a means to drill the spontaneous acquisition and control of measure and tempo. Drills will first be done as technical or line drills to learn the proper execution of technique, then executed in a more spontaneous tactical framework. At first students will be limited in their choice of actions, but as they acquire more experience and confidence, additional actions are added. The goal is to shift from pre-determined sets of multiple actions between two people to a free-flowing drill, with both partners executing spontaneous attacks and defenses in a semi-cooperative fashion, and finally to actual sparring without restrictions. Assisted by Alex Spreier and Mike Cherba of Northwest FencingAcademy.

A Menyd Tour of English Longsword

Instructor: Paul Wagner, Stoccata School of Defence
Class Category: Medieval Martial Arts
Class Length: 90 min (13 Sun 4:15pm-5:45pm)
Experience Level: Beginner to Expert
Intensity Level: As intense as you like!
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: A fencing mask, a longsword or substitute (shinai, etc), and as much other protection as you like

This class will cover a series of techniques demonstrating the fundamental principles behind the English Longsword system, with special emphasis on the tactical approach. And you will find out what "menyd" means!

Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts

The Renaissance Weapons track covers long arms c.1500-1750. Small arms, such as the dagger, are covered in the Close-Quarter Combat track.

The Fundamentals of Marozzo's Spadone —learning how to "think" the weapon

Instructor: Tom Leoni, Order of the Seven Hearts
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 4:30pm-6:30pm)
Experience Level: Beginners are welcome, but students will find that previous familiarity with Bolognese swordsmanship or use of the longsword to be beneficial.
Intensity Level: Students should be in reasonable condition, and able to handle the heavy weight of the weapons.
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Spadone, montante or any two-handed sword at least as big as a longsword. Also absolutely mandatory: gloves, fencing mask.

Note - Due to the extreme nature of the spadone and the damage it could inflict even in the course of a cooperative drill, I will personally inspect that your weapon and protective equipment and ensure it is up to my safety standards.

Achille Marozzo (1536) is the most important extant Italian data-point for the massive and fascinating two-handed sword called spadone. This class explores the fundamental guards as well as the main defensive and offensive actions in the style. The elements of measure, guards, steps, cuts and thrusts, true and false-edge defenses will be gradually built around a core of knowledge in this class that will enable you to understand the essence of the weapon with both your mind and your body.

Anyone studying longsword or the Bolognese style will greatly benefit from this class, in which you will be encouraged to "think" the style after acquiring the absolute fundamentals, and to perform it with the correct mechanics and style.

Your Sword is Your Shield: Defensive Use of the Point in Italian Rapier

Instructor: John O'Meara, Chicago Swordplay Guild
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 4:30pm-6:30pm)
Experience Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: Knowledge of the basic techniques of Italian rapier (guards, footwork, lunge) will be assumed; students new to the system should first take Introduction to Italian Rapier.
Required Equipment: Rapier simulator, mask, gorget, jacket.

The point-forward guard, and the principles that derive from it, are the essence of Italian rapier play. Drawing mostly upon the teachings of Salvatore Fabris, and using a progressive series of vigorous exercises, we'll examine how to unite sword and body in a strong, dynamic guard that keeps the opponent at bay and maintains a constant threat of attack.

Ettenhard's Destreza Fundamentals — Using Geometry to Smite your Enemies

Instructor: Puck Curtis, Sacramento Sword School/Tattershall School of Defence
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 3 hrs (11 Fri 9:00am-12:00pm)
Experience Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Students will need a fencing mask, gloves, and a sidesword.

This course will be an examination of the founding principles of La Verdadera Destreza as described by don Francisco Antonio de Ettenhard's text Compendium of the Foundations of the True Art and Philosophy of Arms (1675). The participants will be introduced to the basics of Spanish Swordplay and Theory including:

Following the introduction of fundamental theory, participants will be presented with martial situations and the group will work together to apply Ettenhard's theory. The students will be encouraged to think critically about the material.

Safely Attacking: A Practical Guide to Understanding Tempo, Measure and Angle in Italian Rapier

Instructor: Bill Grandy, Virginia Academy of Fencing
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 3 hrs (11 Fri 1:15pm-2:45pm)
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: Ideally, the student will have taken the Introduction to Rapier class or have equivalent knowledge of the guards, footwork, cavazione and lunge.
Required Equipment: Fencing mask (or equivalent), practice rapier. Additional safety equipment not required, but welcome. There will be no free-play, but there will be contact drills.

Rapier fencers are always using these words: Tempo, measure, angle. But what the heck does that mean in practical terms? Why do people keep talking about these seemingly esoteric concepts, especially when you're more concerned about the fact that you always get those pesky double kills when you fence? This class will explore these vitally important concepts in Italian rapier fencing and how to apply them in an easy to understand, practical manner, just as the masters taught it. It doesn't have to be as complicated as it may at first seem.

Meyer's Halbe Stange - a devastating length of wood

Instructor: Stefan Dieke
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 3 hrs (11 Fri 3:15pm-4:45pm)
Experience Level: All are welcome
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: [Forthcoming]
Required Equipment: Mask, gloves and 7 - 8 ft pole of ash, elm or hickory would be ideal. Shorter staffs will also work but require some imagination.

The core of this class will be single handed strikes with the Halbe Stange. These are extremely powerful and have a lot of reach. As time permits we will deviate into other aspects of this weapon.

Drill to Fight: Bridging the gap between practice and freeplay with early 17th Century rapier

Instructor: Tom Leoni, Order of the Seven Hearts
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 3 hrs (12 Sat 9:00am-12:00pm)
Experience Level: Intermediate to Advanced
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: At the very least, you should have a decent intellectual and physical command of rapier hand-positions, the lunge preceded by a crisp extension, the concept of opposition to the inside and outside and that of the cavazione.
Required Equipment: Rapier simulator with archery blunter, dagger simulator (preferably with blade no longer than 12"), fencing mask, gloves for both hands.

In this class we will look at how to reduce the fundamentals of Italian rapier play to two fundamental lines for the sword alone, and three lines for sword in dagger.

Rapierists of all levels will have a chance to clean up their game and to gain a superior intellectual grasp of the weapon and its tactics. Also, classical fencers will garner a good understanding of the difference between their art and early 17th Century rapier, while seeing how the Order of the Seven Hearts bridges the gap pedagogically between drilling and freeplay.

Part One: Sword in two lines - How do you make the opponent create the opening you want? How do you initiate an effective offense? How do you turn the trap he has prepared into a point scored for you? This class pares down early 17th century rapier to the absolute essentials and uses them to bridge the gap between drilling and fencing effectively. We will be only using the inside and the outside line so we can truly understand, review and perfect:

After these principles are clear, it will be also clear how to apply all this to the other two lines--high and low.

Part Two: Understanding Italian rapier and dagger, using three lines - What are the absolute essential rules of Italian rapier and dagger —rules that were common to most masters who taught that weapon combination? This highly organized class answers that question and builds a core of theoretical and physical knowledge that is the basis for further understanding Italian rapier and dagger. We will only be using three lines: outside the sword, outside the dagger and in the middle of the weapons. During the course of the class, you will see, understand and perform the following basic concepts and actions:

You won't be overwhelmed with hard-to-remember information. The amount of theory to which you will be exposed is manageable for the time allotted, and it will form a solid "scientific" core for your further exploration into this fascinating weapon combination that many practice but few master (even theoretically).

Spanish Sidesword Fundamentals — Using Destreza Theory to Smite the Italians

Instructor: Puck Curtis, Sacramento Sword School/Tattershall School of Defence
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 90 min (12 Sat 1:00pm-2:30pm)
Experience Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: Ideally, the student will have taken the Destreza fundamentals class and/or be experienced with the Italian rapier.
Required Equipment: Students will need a fencing mask, gloves, and a sidesword.

"We find eight authors to be the first roots of this sect (deformed and horrendous monster that men have venerated) the five Italians, who were Pedro Moncio, Achile Marozo, Camilo Agripa, Giacomi de Grasi, Ioanes de la Agochie; from Mallorca was Iayme Pons de Perpiñan; and Spaniards Francisco Roman and Pedro de la Torre. They followed these (in everything, although contradicting them in part) another great swarm of Authors, whose writings superfluously wander through the world, like tournaments of their vanities. These were Ioachin Meyer, the Lieutenant Falopia , Angelo Vizani, Federico Ghisliero, Marcho Docciolini, Nicoleto Giganti, Salvador de Fabres, Capoferro, Maestre Clasio, Maestre Vico, Babote, and others of lesser importance, if only their insatiable ambition would permit it be said thus..."
    -don Luis Pacheco's New Science (1632)

This course will be a good-natured and slightly cheeky examination of specific Italian techniques examined from the perspective of the Spanish. The participant will have the opportunity to practice both the Italian technique and the counter. Each Italian technique will be counted with the Spanish movements and then each movement will be defeated.

As time permits the Italian techniques to be countered will include:

Provocations for the Sword and Buckler —Initiating Effective Attacks

Instructor: Steve Reich, Order of the Seven Hearts
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 60 min (12 Sat 3:00pm-4:00pm)
Experience Level: Intermediate to Advanced
Intensity Level: Intermediate
Pre-Requisites: See below
Required Equipment: One-handed sword absolutely no lighter than a rapier, Buckler or Targa (i.e. a small, fist-held shield), Fencing Mask, Gloves, Jacket, and Pants such that all skin above the knees is covered.

Note: Although a rapier will work for this class, a student will have much better results with a somewhat stiffer and more substantial blade of the typical "Cut & Thrust" or so-called "Sidesword" variety.

Effectively initiating an attack is an essential skill for every swordsman; not every opponent is willing to initiate an attack or give you a good opening. This class will cover the solutions to this fundamental problem of swordsmanship from the point of view of the Bolognese system. Using the rules you learn in this class and with my guidance, you will assemble complex attack routines based on the techniques and implicit rules of the Bolognese masters, with a careful consideration of the mechanics of each of the offensive motions and how the steps should be incorporated and linked together based on your opponent's responses. All actions in this class will be performed with a buckler or targa.

Note:
All participants will be expected to have at least a basic familiarity with the steps (Accrescimento, Passing Step, Chasing Step, etc.), the guards (Porta di Ferro Stretta and Larga, Coda Lunga Stretta and Larga, Guardia di Testa, Guardia di Sotto Braccio, etc.), and the attacks (Mandritto, Riverso, Stoccata, Imbroccata, etc.) of the Bolognese system. Additionally, participants should be familiar with the basic defenses as covered in Tom Leoni's 4W 2006 handout or my 4W 2008 class handout. This includes parrying with Guardia di Testa and with Marozzo's form of Guardia d'Intrare, parrying with a Falso Manco or a Riverso Ridoppio (i.e. Viggiani's Rovescio Ascendente), and parrying with a Mezzo Mandritto (i.e. with a Mezza Volta di Mano). I encourage anyone who has any doubts about his familiarity with the prerequisite material to take my first class: The Essential Elements of Bolognese Sword and Buckler.

Resources:
Tom Leoni's 4W 2006 handout: http://www.salvatorfabris.com/BologneseIntroduction.pdf
Steve Reich's 4W 2008 handout: http://www.salvatorfabris.com/BologneseFundamentals.pdf

Highland Broadsword and Targe

Instructor: Paul Wagner, Stoccata School of Defence
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 60 min (12 Sat 5:00pm-6:00pm)
Experience Level: Beginner to Expert
Intensity Level: As intense as you like!
Pre-Requisites: None
Pre-Requisites: A single-handed sword (preferably basket-hilt broadsword) or substitute (singlestick, etc), and a shield — preferably round target with arm straps 50cm or so in diameter, but you can make do with anything from a heater shield to a largish buckler

This class will cover the plays for Highland broadsword and Targe according to Thomas Page (1746), with a little help from MacBane, demonstrating the basic principles behind the use of the weapon.

Meyer's Rappier - 16th c. cut & thrust fencing with a relaxed wrist

Instructor: Stefan Dieke
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 3 hrs (13 Sun 10:00am-1:00pm)
Experience Level: All are welcome
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: [Forthcoming]
Required Equipment: Mask, gloves, and a long, steel "sidesword", or broad bladed "rapier". Essentially, the sword should be a 16th century weapon that is well-balanced to both cut and thrust.

In Joachim Meyer's Rappier system cuts and thrusts are equally important. Actually we can make use of Liechtenauer's tactic of keeping the initiative with Meyer's Rapier system. The key for the necessary quick switch from cut to thrust and vice versa is the relaxed wrist.

Italian Broadsword: Actions on the Blade

Instructor: Dr. John Sullins
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 90 min (13 Sun 2:15pm-3:45pm)
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Medium
Pre-Requisites: Intermediate level Classical Fencing.
Required Equipment: Fencing gear, Fencing Sabre, Italian Broadsword recommended, notebook, towel, water bottle.

The Italian Broadsword/Sabre traditions are famous for it's forceful actions on the blade. This class will introduce all their permutations as they have been transmitted by the Italian Scuola Magistrale. We will cover everything from Blade seizures to disarmaments. Learn to fully control and dominate your opponent's blade.

Mixed Weapon Techniques: Use of the Iberian Montante (Two-Handed Sword) Against Polearms

Instructor: Eric Myers, Sacramento Sword School/Tattershall School of Defence
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Martial Arts
Class Length: 90 min (13 Sun 4:15pm-5:45pm)
Experience Level: Beginners to the montante are welcome, but previous familiarity with two handed swords will be beneficial.
Intensity Level: Students should be in reasonable condition, and able to handle the heavy weight of the weapons.
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Spadone, montante or any two-handed sword at least as big as a longsword. Also absolutely mandatory: gloves, fencing mask. Also we will need polearms, representing 6' spears up to full 16' pikes. A simple staff will suffice.

One of the least treated topic in the corpus of Historical European Swordsmanship is how to fight multiple opponents or dissimilar weapons. Interestingly, these topics are a centerpiece of the Iberian tradition! As a battlefield weapon, the montante (Iberian two-handed sword) was meant to encounter everything from pikes to shieldmen. In 1651, Dom Diogo Gomes de Figueiredo, fencing master to the crown prince of Portugal, wrote about how to use a montante against polearms and thrown weapons. In this class, we will cover his techniques and theory as applied to pike and spears.

Due to the inherent danger of these large weapons, this class will be conducted as a series of cooperative drills, with contact between weapons, but not people. Polearm use will be covered only as much as necessary to perform the drills.

Pedagogical Classes

"I want you to know that it is a beautiful mystery to know how to teach people well, more than to just play; for a man, if he knows how to play well and does not know how to teach, is not good (he is single): but one that knows how to teach well, is good for many people; and know that when he knows the one and the other, he is of double virtue and is a double master… "
~ Achille Marozzo, Opera Nova (1536)

In the absence of surviving, living traditions for many of its disciplines, much of the Western Martial Arts community is driven through workshops, distance learning and small "study-groups". Pedagogical classes are a unique offering of WMAW, aimed at addressing the nature of this growing community by specifically teaching how to teach. Working with historical sources, developing a training regimen, and how to bring out the most in your students, training partners and yourself, are all critical components of teaching historical martial arts. These classes have no pre-requisites and open to anyone who finds themselves in the role of an instructor or class-organizer, regardless of experience or ability.

Classical Italian Pedagogy for Rapier and Broadsword, Part One

Instructor: Maestro Sean Hayes, Maestro John Sullins, Maestro Puck Curtis, and Maestro Eric Myers, all graduates of the San Jose State University Fencing Masters Program
Class Category: Pedagogical Classes
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 12:00pm-2:00pm)
Experience Level: Students are meant to be experienced enough in their respective arts to be seeking more knowledge in how to *teach*.
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Mask, gloves, jacket and appropriate training sword.

This class is designed for anyone who wants to make their training more efficient and maximize their group's potential. The Italian tradition of swordplay and teaching has flourished for hundreds of years. Preserved in the foil, epee, and sabre traditions this pedagogy still exists today and may readily be applied to the historical counterparts of rapier and backsword. This class will introduce the classical Italian methodology for teaching fencing, with an emphasis on rapier and broadsword. Students will see a demonstration lesson and lesson plan for the Italian duelling sword ad Italian dueling sabre using the pedagogical methods of Italy's 19th century Military Master's School (Scuola Magistrale). Following this, students will be taught a lesson at rapier or broadsword, using the pedagogical methods previously demonstrated. Part One of this class is designed to prepare students to work as teachers in individual lessons in Part Two.

Classical Italian Pedagogy for Rapier and Broadsword, Part Two

Instructor: Maestro Sean Hayes, Maestro John Sullins, Maestro Puck Curtis, and Maestro Eric Myers, all graduates of the San Jose State University Fencing Masters Program
Class Category: Pedagogical Classes
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 2:15pm-4:15pm)
Experience Level: See "Pre-Requisites"
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: Students must register and attend the prior session unless special permission of instructional staff is given.
Required Equipment: Mask, gloves, jacket and appropriate training sword.

This is a continuation of Classical Italian Pedagogy for Rapier, Part One. In this class, students will take on the role of teachers and execute a lesson plan drawn directly from their work in Part One.

Decision Making for the Instructor

Instructor: Guy Windsor, The School of European Swordsmanship in Helsinki
Class Category: Pedagogical Classes
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 4:30pm-6:30pm)
Experience Level: Suited to anyone who runs classes, teaches, or helps their friends improve.
Intensity Level: Physically light, but brain-heavy.
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Sword (suited to your style), mask, any protection needed for giving an individual lesson. Pen, paper and water bottle advisable.

The mark of an experienced instructor is the instinct for making the one most necessary correction, when faced with a student's many errors. This class will look at ways of developing good teaching instinct, in both an individual lesson and in class. Participants will develop a "hierarchy of corrections", see how most errors can be broken down into "structure" or "flow", and get an insight into the principle problems most teachers face.

This class will suit all fencing styles; if your own is fairly obscure, it would help to bring a student along for practice of specific technical exercises.

Developing, Training with and Understanding the role of Solo Forms in Western Martial Arts

Instructor: Guy Windsor, The School of European Swordsmanship in Helsinki
Class Category: Pedagogical Classes
Class Length: 3 hrs (11 Fri 9:00am-12:00pm)
Experience Level: You need to know at least three techniques, in any system.
Intensity Level: Physically moderate, but brain-heavy.
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Sword (and/or other weapon suited to your style), mask. Pen, paper and water bottle advisable.

This class will cover how to construct and use set forms, for whatever system you train in. We will first look at the use of form for developing movement dynamics, then as a memory aid for a system, then as a training aid for making that system available to you under stress.

This class will suit all fencing styles; if your own is unusual, it would help to bring a colleague along for pair exercises. Students are advised to read my article Forms, Intervals and Skill Progression before the class; you can download it from here: http://www.swordschool.com/publications/articles.html.

Lectures and Presentations

Presentations are lectures, demonstrations or round-tables open to all attendees. Required equipment for all classes consists of a pen, notebook and willingness to learn.

Test Cutting for the Western Martial Artist

Instructor: Roger Siggs, Rocky Mountain Swordplay Guild
Class Category: Lectures and Presentations
Class Length: 2 hrs (10 Thu 4:30pm-6:30pm)
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Intermediate
Pre-Requisites: While advanced knowledge is not required, students are expected to already be actively training with some sort of cutting sword.
Required Equipment: Equipment needed- A $10 fee will be used to cover the cutting targets and loaner swords will be available. Students are encouraged to bring their own sharps to practice with.

Our recreation of Western Martial Arts is done in a number of methods. One way to ensure proper edge alignment and body mechanics is through the use of test cutting. In this class we will examine the mechanics of the cut, with various swords and in various traditions, and how to perform these movements accurately and combatively. Special attention will be given to the preparatory and follow-through movements used to power and control cuts. Students will be allowed to use a number of different weapons to try out cutting dynamics in different and varied environments.

Mounted Combat: Just a Continuation of the System

Instructor: Theresa Wendland, Lecturer, Chicago Swordplay Guild
Class Category: Lectures and Presentations
Class Length: 90 min (11 Fri 10:30am-12:00pm)
Experience Level: Low
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None

Too often, mounted combat is overlooked when studying historical fighting systems because it seems too different or unfamiliar to the non-equestrian. The goal of this lecture is to help demystify some of the basics of mounted combat. This class focuses on the similarities and disparities of fighting on foot vs. fighting on horseback. We will begin with a discussion and pictorial review of a horse's gaits and the gaits depicted by Fiore dei Liberi in order to illustrate the similarities between the familiar footwork used for fighting on foot and the horse's movement and steps used during mounted combat. We will also apply the modern bio-mechanical terms of wave, spiral, and triangle point to the way the rider utilizes the horse's natural gaits and inclinations to defeat his opponent using body mechanics similar to those of dismounted combat. Finally, we will examine selected plates from dei Liberi's "Il Fior di Battaglia" (the Flower of Battle) for specific examples of the uses of sword, spear, and wrestling from horseback and their "counterparts" on foot.

Combat Manuals in Context

Instructor: Keith Alderson, Lecturer, Independent Researcher
Class Category: Lectures and Presentations
Class Length: 90 min (11 Fri 10:30am-12:00pm)
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None

Beginning with high medieval works on the art of reading and writing — this class is designed to be a general overview of how books were produced in the period from 'Pen to Press' and how this needs to inform our understanding of what they contain (especially as regards the use of vernacular) and how they are organized. Participants from all areas of interest are welcome. "Beginners course" (Take away: text and image in historical context.)

Cool and Unusual Weapons of the Western Martial Arts

Instructor: Craig Johnson, Lecturer, Oakshott Institute
Class Category: Lectures and Presentations
Class Length: 90 min (11 Fri 1:15pm-2:45pm)
Experience Level: Intro
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Fencing mask and leather gloves.

The Flail, War Axe, Sax, Pick, Tuck, Pole Hammer; all examples of some of the more unique weapons used in period Western Martial Arts. The search for an advantage drove the smith and the fighter to try many weapon designs.

This class will handle and try several different weapons to explore their advantages and disadvantages. We will look at the materials used to make these items and what the attributes of these materials did to the design and functionality of the weapon or armor. These practical qualities will then be illustrated with examples in action against targets and defenses. Exploration of what the weapons and armor where capable of is an important aspect of understanding the skills we study. This class will be part amazing weapons and part myth busting.

The German Fightbook: Working with 3227a, Sigmund Ringeck, Peter von Danzig, and progressing to Joachim Meyer

Instructor: Keith Alderson, Lecturer, Independent Researcher
Class Category: Lectures and Presentations
Class Length: 90 min (11 Fri 5:15pm-6:45pm)
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None

This class examines the manner in which the Lichtenauer versus are introduced and expounded upon in the evolving German tradition and how this ought to influence their presentation in our teaching. "Enthusiasts Course" (Take away: the variety of introductions and material presentation and their order are examined in detail within the German material.)

The Medieval Sword Blade

Instructor: Craig Johnson, Lecturer, Oakshott Institute
Class Category: Lectures and Presentations
Class Length: 75 min (12 Sat 9:00am-10:15am)
Experience Level: Intro
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None

An exploration of the medieval sword blade in its many forms, attributes and uses. The blade of the sword is an incredible piece of design. It has evolved over thousands of years and has been used by many cultures. This discussion will explore the design aspects of the blade from sharpness, what is it, to the blade shape and its affect on use. We will touch on the needs of the sword user and how the smith of the Middle Ages met the challenges of meeting those needs.

New Old Spain — Lost and Found, Found Again, or Lost in Plain Sight

Instructor: Steve Hick, Bumpers
Class Category: Lectures and Presentations
Class Length: 90 min (12 Sat 10:30am-12:00pm)
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None

This will be a general presentation of new found material or integrated old material on the old and/or common fencing of greater Spain ( Spain , Portugal , the Spanish Netherlands and the colonies). This would include discovering significant material on the missing masters of Iberia — Pons, de la Torre and Roman (from Carranza, Pacheco and Pallivicini), as well as integration of newly found or new related materials — Gomes de Figueiredo's Oplosophia, LHermite's plays of de Paredes, anonymous's play; Monte, Roman (from Carranza), Pacheco, de Heredia, de Viedma and Mendoza.

Class Notes: Running a Successful Practice Session

Instructor: Bill Grandy, Virginia Academy of Fencing
Class Category: Lectures and Presentations
Class Length: 90 min (12 Sat 1:00pm-2:30pm)
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None

With the explosive growth of the current Western Martial Arts revival, various study groups have been appearing all over. Some are formed by experienced practitioners, while others are formed by dedicated novices. Regardless of experience level, quite often one of the hardest tasks, after forming a group, is figuring out how to lead your practice session, and how to keep one's partners and students excited enough to keep coming back.

Here we will discuss how to run a simple practice session, regardless of style. The lecture will assume the practice session has to do with swordsmanship as a general example, though this can easily be adapted to any other form of training. We will tackle topics such as: How do we warm people up? How do we teach footwork? Once people learn footwork, how do we incorporate it into practice? How do we practice the invaluable basics without it feeling boring? When and how do we incorporate the right amount of free-play without it devolving into playing tag? Participants in this lecture will hopefully leave with some fresh inspiration on how to introduce more dynamic methods of training to their current curriculum.

And show up prepared to move... this is going to be a hands-on class.

The Judicial Duel: an important context of how our arts were used

Instructor: Tom Leoni, Order of the Seven Hearts
Class Category: Lectures and Presentations
Class Length: 90 min (13 Sun 11:30am-1:00pm)
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None

As we spend so much time learning our arts, we all but ignore one of the main contexts in which they were used: the judicial duel. Going in and out of legality through the centuries, this highly codified institution always followed a narrow set of guidelines. In this presentation, you will learn:

Hear about some myths dispelled in this presentation, as well as the examples of notable duels through the centuries. Understand why the fencing treatises emphasize certain things while deemphasizing others. See an important contextual background take shape behind the arts we study.

Measure, Holding the Buckler, Guardia d'Intrare and other Puzzles of Bolognese Swordsmanship

Instructor: Steve Reich, Order of the Seven Hearts
Class Category: Lectures and Presentations
Class Length: 90 min (13 Sun 2:15pm-3:45pm)
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None

What are the measures of the Bolognese system (and why don't the masters ever spell them out in plain Italian)? How does tempo apply when I'm stepping or making the preparation for an attack? Where should I keep my buckler: do I move it around or hold it out in front of me? What is the correct form of Guardia d'Intrare? What about Guardia di Testa? In this informal presentation and demonstration, using material from the Bolognese treatises, I will answer all of these and other questions and (time permitting), I will take technical and theoretical questions about the fundamentals of Bolognese Swordsmanship from the audience. Additionally, I will answer theoretical questions about the actions performed in my introductory class, Essentials for Bolognese and 16th Century Swordsmanship.

The Fechtbuch of Peter Falkner

Instructor: Christian Tobler, Selohaar Fechtschule
Class Category: Lectures and Presentations
Class Length: 90 min (13 Sun 4:15pm-5:45pm)
Experience Level: Intro
Intensity Level: Low
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None

This lecture will be an illustrated overview and examination of the late 15th century fighting treatise of Peter Falkner, a Hauptmann (Captain) of the Marxbrüder fencing guild. As yet, Falkner's work has received little attention in the modern WMA community, but provides a great deal of interesting material, and provides an interesting bridge from the 15th century manuscripts aimed at chivalric audiences, and the printed fencing books of the 16th century.